Alergic Rhinitis

Allergic rhinitis is clinically defined as a symptomatic disorder of the nose induce by an IgE-mediated inflamation after allergen exposure of the membrane of the nose

The new classification of allergic rhinitis:

Uses symptoms and quality of life parameters

Is based on duration: intermitten or persistent

Is base on severity: mild or moderate-severe

Allergic Rhinitis

Seasonal allergic rhinitis/Hay fever : symptom complex that follows sensitization to windborne pollens of trees, grasses, and weeds.

Perennial allergic rhinitis : the patient has year-round symptoms, caused generally by allergens which exposed with the patient. Most often by indoor inhalant allergens.


Weather changes



House mite, tick


Scent of alcohol

Chemical scent :ink, paint

Detergent powder


Animal fur

Diagnosis / clinical manifestations

Paroxysmal sneezing


Nasal obstrucion

Headache / lethargic

Itching of the nose, palate, pharynx, & ears

Itching, redness tearing of the eyes (conjunctive erythema)


General :avoidance of exposure to suspected allergens/ irritants

Immunotheraphy (if cannot avoid the inhalant allergens)

Drug :


Pseudoephedrine (nasal obstruction)

2-5 years : 15 mg / 6 hour

6-12 years : 30 mg / 6 hour

>12 years : 60 mg / 6 hour

Topical nasal corticosteroid (beclomethasone, budesonide, fluticasone, mometasone) for children with nasal symptoms are resistant to antihistamine-decongestant

Initial dosage : 1-2 spray in each nostril

(2-3 times) per day. After 3-4 days as symptoms improves, the dosa / frequency of use are reduced until a minimal effective dosage is reached.

Complications : local burning, irritation & epistaxis



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