Acute, potentially life-threatening
reaction caused by :
rapid release of mediators from mast cell & basophiles that follows the interaction with specific, cell-bound IgE (type I)
Skins : erythema, pruritus, urticaria, angioneurotic oedema
Gastro-intestinal tract : nausea, vomitting, stomache, colic, diarrhoea
Respiration tract : cough, rhinitis, dyspnoe, wheezing/ asthma, larynx edema, cyanose, resp.Insufficiency.
Cardiovasculer system : pale, flushing, palpitating hypotension collapse, shock, cardiac arrest
Foods Causing Allergic Reactions
In children, 6 foods cause almost all food allergy reactions :
Tree nuts (walnuts
There is no specific test for anaphylaxis
However, allergy testing can help determine what substances an individual may be allergic to, and provide guidance for the physician as to the severity of the allergy.
Diagnosis is based primarily on :
Medical history, including immediate
past exposure to possible allergens
Response to treatment
Fix proximal torniquet on area of injection or insect bite/sting
Injection of aqueous epinephrine 1:1000 0,1 – 0,3 ml IM. Can be repeated after 15-20 min
If the reaction is due to the injection of bee’s sting on an extremity, one half of this above dose may diluted in 2 ml normal saline and infiltrated subcutaneously at the site of the sting to slow absorption
Shock condition are given 1-2 cc epinephrine fluid in aqua 1:10.000 IV even intra cardial
Clear the air way & give O2
Antihistamine = benadryl 2 mg /kg BW/IV
IVFD NaCl 0,9% : 20-40 ml/kg BW in 1-2 hours. If needed : plasma expander fluid 10-20 cc/kg BW in 1-2 hours
Dexamethasone : 0,2-0,3 mg/kg BW/IV
Aminophylline : 4 mg/kg/IV diluted in normal saline
Always kept warm the patient
Airway obstruction may need to inserting the endotracheal tube/tracheostomy
Metabolic acidosis : give bicarbonat, ringer lactat.
Cardiac arrest : external cardial massage
Good when the shocked patient is treated
quickly & effectively
As with any severe allergy, the primary
method of protection is a two-step process :
Avoiding contact with allergens
Being prepared to treat anaphylactic
emergencies by carrying self-injectable
epinephrine followed by emergency
For drug, food & exercise anaphylaxis, the only advice is to avoid the substance or activity known to cause the reaction.
In the case of severe food allergies, it is always a good idea to take that extra step, when in a restaurant, alert the waiter to any food allergies, and when shopping be sure to read labels to identify unsuspected ingredients.
Avoid the food or food protein you are allergic to.
If, for example, you are allergic to milk, avoid milk, yogurt, ice cream and anything that is made with milk.
This sound simple, but food proteins can hide in places you might not expect to find them, most often as ingredient in other food.
Works directly on the cardiovascular & respiratory systems to counter the potentially fatal effects of anaphylaxis by rapidly :
constricting the blood vessels
relaxing muscles in the airway & lungs to
stimulating the heartbeat.
Epinephrine provides the patient with
emergency therapy, but immediate follow-up
care by medical professionals will provide the
patient the full treatment necessary to
counter an anaphylactic episode.
The sooner a patient receives epinephrine,
the better that patient’s chance of survival